The 3 Ps of business analysis: process management, product management and project management

July 26, 2023
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You've probably heard of the three Ps: Product, Process and Project. This is a common expression that you'll see in business analysis. But what are they?

In business analysis, there are three main activities: process management, product management and project management. The three are related because they deal with the same issue: how to get things done in a way that is efficient and effective.

Process Management 

Process management deals with how to manage the flow of work from beginning to end. This includes all the people involved in the process and their roles within it, as well as how each step relates to other steps along the way. It's about finding ways to improve efficiency by streamlining processes or redesigning them completely. This can be done by analyzing workflows, identifying bottlenecks and fixing them, or implementing new systems for better communication between employees or departments. Process management is the lifecycle of a product or service from conception to completion. It involves the activities that are performed over time to create the final product or service.

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Product Management 

Product management is about creating products that are useful for customers and have value for your organization as well as its competitors. This involves planning what features will be necessary for a product's success and creating those features based on market research data collected through surveys or focus groups. In addition, product managers must also plan pricing structures and distribution channels so that you can sell more units at lower costs than your competitors do without losing money overall due to competition between different companies offering similar products at different prices.

Product management also involves testing the products in the market, and then analyzing how well it performs against competitors.

Become a Certified Product Manager
Become a Certified Product Manager

Project Management 

Project management is managing projects from start to finish. It involves setting goals for each phase of development, assigning tasks to people who will carry out those tasks, tracking progress along the way, and adjusting as necessary based on feedback from stakeholders (both internal and external). Project management looks at all aspects of what's happening within an organization, from start to finish—and then sets out plans for how everything will move forward over time.  

These three Ps work together in the business analysis world as an interconnected system that helps organizations achieve their goals more effectively than ever before.

What is the evolution of the business analyst's role in project management, product management & process management.

Business analysis is a critical part of any project from start to finish.

In the past, business analysts were often hired as consultants and brought in to provide a full-time service to their clients. While this was a perfectly valid approach for many projects, there was always this nagging feeling that it was missing something. 

Become a Certified Project Manager
Become a Certified Project Manager

This feeling came from the fact that no matter how good your consultant was at what they did, they didn't have the same kind of deep knowledge across all levels of an organization that an experienced BA had gained over time working within that organization.

The result was that companies would hire consultants as needed, but also keep on hand an experienced BA who could be called upon when needed.

With the advent of agile development methods like Scrum or Kanban (or even more traditional methods like eXtreme Programming), it became clear that business analysis was not just about providing consulting services - it was also about helping teams work together more effectively. This wasn't just about adding more people to your team - you actually wanted those people who were already there to be able to do their job better because they had access to all kinds of internal knowledge through their relationships with others.


In the past, business analysts were responsible for performing all phases of what is now known as "Business Analysis," which includes performing a variety of tasks related to planning, managing and controlling projects.

In the 21st century, Business Analysis has become more specialized, with some organizations creating separate positions for each function. These roles are usually filled by individuals with specialized training and experience such as Certified Business Analyst Professional (CBAP) or Certified Scrum Master (CSM).

The most recent evolution of this role is the growth of project management skills in organizations that offer their employees training for these positions. While many organizations do not require their employees to have any formal knowledge about project management before they begin working on projects, there are many benefits that come from having an experienced project manager on staff who can help train new members of staff in these areas. This allows business analysts and project managers to work together more effectively.

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